-       Most of our electricity comes from power stations that use fossil fuels like coal and oil

o   The power stations burn the fossil fuels to make our electricity and in that process a lot of greenhouse gas is made including carbon dioxide and methane à these sources of energy are called dirty sources à these greenhouse gases are causing the Earths atmosphere to warm and will cause the climate to change

o   Energy from the sun, wind, waves and water only produce small amounts of greenhouse gases

-       Australia is moving towards a clean energy future

-       Bioenergy is one of the innovations in Australia that is helping and has great potential to achieve carbon emission reduction targets

-       Energy crops: are a important type of bioenergy à refers to crops grown for the purpose of energy production
o   The crop residue from sweet sorghum, wheat and other assorted grains are used as an energy source
      Energy crops are very unique because not only do they provide renewable energy but they have a lot of environmental and economic benefits

-       In 2016 hundreds of farms across Australia took up to $60m worth of clean energy loans to reduce power costs. This is due to the push for more cost efficient energy sources and the drive for a cleaner future for Australia. 
-       farmers of wheat, barley and chickpeas utilise satellite and drone technology in an attempt to go greener.  They uses a Satamap to help improve their soil and crop health

Interesting facts:
Cow project.

Did you know that ethanol is a shorten version of its original name. “Bioethanol”.  Also its nick-names ethyl alcohol, grain spirit and moonshine. But is just usually named alcohol. Ethanol in Australia is made by wheat, sorghum , corn.


How the process works

The ethanol is produced by fermenting sugars within the sorghum grain.

• The process begins by grinding (milling) the sorghum into a fine powder called meal.

• The meal is mixed with water and an enzyme to create a mash, which is then heated to turn the starch in the meal into a liquid (liquification).

• The mash is then cooled and another enzyme is added, which converts the liquid starch into fermentable sugars (saccharification).

• Once this process is complete, yeast is added and the mash is placed into a series of fermenters (fermentation). This is where the yeast converts the sugars into ethanol.

How we make Ethanol
Renewable fuels, such as ethanol are produced from agricultural products such as wheat and sugar cane. An important fact about ethanol is that unlike fossil fuels it is made from a renewable resource, Australian agricultural crops that can be grown again and again.
Manildra Group makes its ethanol from waste as part of an integrated manufacturing process at our Nowra plant. As part of this process flour is separated into gluten (protein) and starch. The protein is removed from flour and is sold to food manufacturers worldwide. Starch is used by a number of businesses within the confectionary, beverage and paper industries.
The residual starch from this process is fermented and converted to Ethanol, which is simply alcohol.
Ethanol is sold into the fuel industry for use in E10 which is 10% ethanol, 90% unleaded petrol and E85 which is 85% ethanol and 15% unleaded petrol.
Industrial ethanol is used in pharmaceutical products and products such as methylated spirits, aerosol sprays and printing inks.
The waste from ethanol production is turned in to a protein rich livestock feed that supplements the diet of hundreds of thousands of cattle in Australia, New Zealand and the international market.

                         Ethanol and E10

In 2008, the Federal Parliament approved legislation capping the use of ethanol in petrol to 10% (E10) and requiring that petrol stations adequately inform consumers if they are using petrol that includes ethanol. 
Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) is a clear, colourless liquid, generally manufactured from grain or sugar. Currently around 90% of Australia’s ethanol is produced from wheat. Blending ethanol and petrol in various proportions has been put forward as a means of reducing greenhouse gas emissions and alleviating adverse economic conditions in the sugar industry.
Ethanol can be considered as a renewable fuel when produced from sustainable agricultural sources and has potential for cutting greenhouse gas emissions. 
Ethanol can be used as an automotive fuel by itself and can be mixed with petrol to form an ethanol/petrol blend. Pure ethanol can only be used in specially designed engines.

Within the Australian context, the use of ethanol blends of 10% (E10) has been found to result in:
§  Decreased emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) (32%) and hydrocarbons (HC) (12%); 
§  Increases in non-regulated toxics: acetaldehyde (180%) and formaldehyde (25%); 
§  A slight (1%) increase in nitrogen oxides; and 
§  Decreases in non-regulated toxics: 1-3 butadiene (19%), benzene (27%).


Matraville Archibull 2016